Cocom Agreement

CoCom`s partners have agreed on primary and support contracts to address a number of emerging countries with regard to cooperation agreements. A permanent working group, the Working Group on Cooperation in Third Countries, has been established to monitor progress in concluding cooperation agreements. CoCom members are committed to supporting agreements with third countries and to using the control mechanisms in place in those countries. In the event that foreign policy controls are put in place, the President is responsible for „taking all possible measures“ to ensure the cooperation of other governments in establishing comparable export controls. Exports that comply with contracts or agreements made before the president expresses an intention to introduce foreign policy controls cannot be restricted unless the President sees that the export would constitute a breach of the peace or a direct contribution to the threat. The 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty was an agreement between nations that possessed nuclear weapons in 1968 and those that did not. Nuclear „assets“ have promised to work on nuclear disarmament and to share peaceful nuclear technology with the „have nothing.“ In exchange, the other signatory countries pledged not to attempt to acquire nuclear weapons. No sooner had the threat of international communism eased than a new threat emerged, that of state-promoted terrorism. Western governments quickly realized that export restrictions were still needed to prevent „rogue states“ from acquiring advanced technology. In a 1996 speech, Lynn E. Davis, Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security Issues, called Iran, Iraq, North Korea and Libya „pariah countries“ and the goals of a new agreement on controlling restrictions on technology exports.

Two other measures are expected to speed up the licensing process. First, the defence and trade divisions entered into an agreement in 1990 under which national security exports to the Soviet Union and to Eastern Europe, at the exceptional administrative level, are not subject to a dod review procedure. Second, the new GCT or General License for Intra-CoCom Trade eliminates many validated licensing requirements for exports to CoCom members. U.S. controls on exports of nuclear products were originally based on the authority of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 updated the Atomic Energy Act and is the primary authority for the control of dual-use nuclear assets.