Ec Horizontal Agreements Guidelines

Standardization agreements generally have a significant positive economic impact (102), for example. B by encouraging economic penetration of the internal market and encouraging the development of new and improved products or markets and improved supply conditions. Standards therefore generally increase competition and reduce production and distribution costs, benefiting economies as a whole. Standards can preserve and improve quality, provide information and ensure interoperability and compatibility (increasing value for consumers). Whether potential competition problems that could lead to production agreements can arise in a particular case depends on the characteristics of the market in which the agreement takes place, as well as the nature and coverage of the cooperation market and the product that concerns it. These variables determine the likely effects of a production agreement on competition and hence the applicability of Article 101, paragraph 1. Horizontal subcontracts include unilateral and reciprocal specialization agreements, as well as subcontracts to expand production. Unilateral specialization agreements are agreements between two parties operating in the same product market or market, under which one party agrees to cease all or part of the production of certain products or not to produce them and to obtain them from the other party that agrees to manufacture and deliver the products. Reciprocal specialization agreements are agreements between two or more parties operating in the same market or market, under which two or more parties agree, on the basis of reciprocity, to stop or abstain from all or part of certain but different products and to purchase those products from other parties who agree to manufacture and deliver them. In the case of subcontracts to expand production, the subcontractor entrusts the manufacture of a product to the subcontractor, while the contractor does not simultaneously stop or limit its own production of the goods. Horizontal cooperation agreements can restrict competition in several respects. The agreement can be the result of horizontal cooperation agreements in different ways.

A research and development agreement can bring together different research capabilities that allow parties to produce better products at a lower cost and reduce the time allotted to them until these products are brought to market.