The Munich Agreement (Czech: Mnichovska dohoda); in Slovak: Mnechovska dohoda; in German: Munchner Abkommen) or Munchner Verrat (Czech: Mnichovska zrada; The Slovak: Mnechovska zrada) was an agreement reached on 30 September 1938 in Munich by Nazi Germany, the United Kingdom, the Third French Republic and the Kingdom of Italy. It granted Germany the „transfer of the German territory of the Sudetenland“ from Czechoslovakia.  Most of Europe celebrated the agreement because it prevented the war threatened by Adolf Hitler by allowing the annexation of the Sudetenland by Nazi Germany, a region of Western Czechoslovakia inhabited by more than 3 million people, mainly German-speaking. Hitler declared that this was his last territorial claim in Europe, and the choice seemed to lie between war and appeasement. Before the Munich Accords, Hitler`s determination to invade Czechoslovakia on 1 October 1938 had caused a major crisis in the German command structure. In a long series of memos, Chief of Staff Ludwig Beck protested that he would start a world war that Germany would lose and urged Hitler to get out of the planned war. Hitler called Beck`s arguments against the war „childish calculations of forces.“ On August 4, 1938, a secret army meeting was held. Beck read his detailed report to the assembled officers. They all agreed that something had to be done to avoid some catastrophe. Beck hoped they would all retire together, but no one resigned except Beck. His successor, General Franz Halder, sympathized with Beck and both conspired with several generals, Admiral Wilhelm Canaris (head of the German secret service) and Count von Helldorf (Berlin police chief) to arrest Hitler when he gave the order to invade Hitler.
This plan would only work if Britain gave a strong warning and a letter to fight for the preservation of Czechoslovakia. This would help convince the German people that a certain defeat awaits Germany. Agents were therefore sent to England to tell Chamberlain that an attack was planned against Czechoslovakia and by their intention to overthrow Hitler if that were the case. The proposal was rejected by the British cabinet and no such letter was published. As a result, Hitler`s impeachment proposal was not pursued.  On this basis, it was argued that the Munich agreement kept Hitler in power, but whether it had been more effective than the 1944 conspiracy. Chamberlain fought as Prime Minister until May 1940, when he resigned and took Winston Churchill, a fierce critic of appeasement. Chamberlain died in November 1940. However, he continued to be denigrated for his general appeasement and for his actions of September 1938, especially long after his death and the end of the war.